Madre de Dios is characterized by an ethnic and cultural diversity personified by men who have inhabited these lands for some 3,000 years and belong to seven linguistic groups.
Pano linguistic family and are found in the Piedras basin.
Arawak linguistic family, they are located in the extreme west of the department, in the Manu National Park.
They inhabit the Madre de Dios basin.
They live in the province of Tambopata on the Madre de Dios River.
Tacana linguistic family inhabit the lower part of the Madre de Dios River. Tambopata Sonene and Beni on the border with Bolivia.
Integrated by seven groups the Arakbut, Arasaeri, Pikirieri, Sapiteri, Toyeri, Huachiperi and Kusamberi. They inhabit the basins of the Colorado, high Madre de Dios. Pukiri and Inambari.